José Saramago

José Saramago (1935 - )

José Saramago

Source: Antenati

José Saramago

Considered by Harold Bloom as the "most gifted novelist alive in the world today" Saramago has combined in his work history of Portugal, myths and surrealistic imagination. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1998.

José Saramago was born in Azinhaga, a small village in the province of Ribatejo. In 1924, Saramago's family moved to Lisbon, where his father started working as a policeman. A few months later, his brother Francisco died. Although Saramago was a good student, due to financial problems, he was forced to leave school in order to earn his living. Saramago was educated as a technician, and before becoming a journalist, translator, and writer, he did a number of manual jobs.

He joined in 1969 the Communist Party of Portugal, which was forbidden during the military dictatorship, but he also criticized the party. In the 1970s Saramago supported himself mostly by translation works, and since 1979 he has devoted himself entirely to writing. The author lives on the Canary Islands.

Selected Works:


  • Os poemas possiveis. Portugália Ed. 1966, Ed. Caminho 1982
  • Provavelmente alegria, Livros Horizonte 1970, Ed. Caminho 1985
  • O ano de 1993. Ed. Futura 1975, Ed. Caminho 1987


  • Manual de Pintura e Caligrafia: romance Moraes Ed. 1977, Ed. Caminho, 1984
  • Objecto quase.´Moraes Ed.1978, Ed. Caminho, 1984
  • Levantado do Chão: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1980
  • Memorial do Convento: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1982, Círculo de Leitores, 1984
  • O ano da morte de Ricardo Reis: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1984
  • A jangada de pedra: romance. Ed. Caminho 1986, Círculo de Leitores, 1987
  • História do cerco de Lisboa: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1989
  • O evangelho segundo Jesus Cristo: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1991
  • Ensaio sobre a cegueira: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1995
  • Todos os nomes: romance. Ed. Caminho, 1997
  • Terra do Pecado : romance. 1947. 2. ed. Lisboa : Caminho, 1997
  • O conto da Ilha Desconhecida / desenhos: Pedro Cabrita Reis. Lisboa : Assírio & Alvim, 1997
  • A caverna : romance. Lisboa : Caminho, 2000
  • O homem duplicado : romance. Lisboa : Caminho, 2002
  • Ensaio sobre a Lucidez : romance. Lisboa : Caminho, 2004


  • Deste mundo e do outro. Ed Arcádia 1971, Ed Caminho, 1985
  • A bagagem do viajante: crónicas. Ed. Futura 1973, Ed. Caminho, 1986
  • As opiniões que o DL teve. Seara NovaEd. Futura, 1974
  • Os apontamentos: crónicas políticas. Seara Nova, 1976, Ed. Caminho, 1990
  • Viagem a Portugal. Círculo de Leitores 1981, Ed. Caminho, 1984
  • Folhas políticas : 1976-1998. Lisboa : Caminho, 1999
  • Discursos de Estocolmo. Lisboa : Caminho, 1999


  • A noite. Ed. Caminho 1979
  • Que farei com este livro? Ed. Caminho 1980
  • A segunda vida de Francisco de Assis. Ed. Caminho 1987
  • In nomine Dei, 1993
  • Don Giovanni ou O dissoluto absolvido : [teatro]. Lisboa : Caminho, 2005


  • Cadernos de Lanzarote : diário. Vol. 1-5.. Lisboa : Caminho, 1994-1998. 5 vol.

Critical studies

  • Lopes, O., Os sinais e os sentidos. Literatura portuguesa do século XX. Lisboa 1986
  • Seixo, M. Maria, O essencial sobre José Saramago. Imprensa Nacional 1987
  • Silva, T.C. Cerdeira da, Entre a história e a ficção. Uma saga de portugueses. Dom Quixote 1989
  • Losada, B., Eine iberische Stimme. Liber, 2,1, 1990,3
  • Kaufman, Helena I., Ficção histórica portuguesa da pós-revolução. Madison 1991
  • Bastos, Baptista, José Saramago: Aproximação a um retrato. Dom Quijote 1996
  • Costa, Horácio, José Saramago: O Período Formativo. Ed. Caminho 1998
  • Reis, Carlos, Diálogos com José Saramago. Lisboa : Caminho, 1998
  • Madruga, Maria da Conceição, A paixão segundo José Saramago : a paixão do verbo e o verbo da paixão. Porto : Campos das Letras, 1998

In English

  • Baltasar and Blimunda. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, cop. 1987 ; London : Cape, 1988. Uniform Title: Memorial do convento
  • The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis. Translated by Giovanni Pontiero. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991 ; London : harvill, 1992. Uniform Title: O ano da morte de Ricardo Reis
  • The Gospel According to Jesus Christ. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. London : Harvill, 1993 ; New York : Harcourt Brace & Co., 1994. Uniform Title: O Evangelho segundo Jesus Cristo
  • Manual of Painting and Calligraphy: a Novel. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. Manchester : Carcanet, 1994. Uniform Title: Manual de pintura e caligrafia
  • The Stone Raft. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. London : Harvill, 1994 ; New York : Harcourt Brace, cop. 1995. Uniform Title: Jangada de pedra
  • The History of the Siege of Lisbon. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. New York : Harcourt Brace, 1996 ; London : Harvill, 1996. Uniform Title: História do cerco de Lisboa
  • Blindness. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. London : Harvill, 1997. Thorndike, Me. : Thorndike Press, 1999. Uniform Title : Ensaio sobre a cegueira
  • Baltasar & Blimunda. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero. - London : Harvill, 1998. Uniform Title: Memorial do convento. Note : The English text as originally publ. embodied a number of editorial amendments which the author requested be overruled; the labour of reinstating the text in accordance with the author's wishes was undertaken by Giovanni Pontiero
  • All the Names. Translated from the Portuguese by Margaret Jull Costa. New York : Harcourt, 1999 ; London : Harvill, 1999. Uniform Title: Todos os nomes
  • The Tale of the Unknown Island. Illustrated by Peter Sís ; translated from the Portuguese by Margaret Jull Costa. London : Harvill, 1999 ; New York : Harcourt Brace, cop. 1999. Uniform Title: Conto da ilha desconhecida
  • Journey to Portugal : In Pursuit of Portugal's History and Culture. Translated from the Portuguese and with notes by Amanda Hopkinson and Nick Caistor. London : Harvill, 2000 ; New York : Harcourt, 2000. Uniform Title: Viagem a Portugal
  • The Cave. Translated from the Portuguese by Margaret Jull Costa. London : Harvill, 2002 ; New York : Harcourt, cop. 2002. Uniform Title: A Caverna
  • The Double. Translated from the Portuguese by Margaret Jull Costa. London : Harvill, 2004 ; Orlando : Harcourt, cop. 2004. Uniform Title: O Homem duplicado